Email exchanges between National Security Agency Director Gen. Keith Alexander and Google executives Sergey Brin and Eric Schmidt suggest a far cozier working relationship between some tech firms and the U.S. government than was implied by Silicon Valley brass after last year’s revelations about NSA spying.
Disclosures by former NSA contractor Edward Snowden about the agency’s vast capability for spying on Americans’ electronic communications prompted a number of tech executives whose firms cooperated with the government to insist they had done so only when compelled by a court of law.
But Al Jazeera has obtained two sets of email communications dating from a year before Snowden became a household name that suggest not all cooperation was under pressure.
Tomorrow night, Friday, March 14, at 9:30 pm ET, tune-in to the premiere of “Death In Plain Sight”.
In this episode, Fault Lines travels to South Carolina to investigate the epidemic of domestic violence homicide, and the effects of weak gun laws on the safety and lives of women.
Pictured is Zakiya Lawson, she was the victim of a murder-suicide in which the father of her child, Peter Williams, shot her and himself, upset that she had broken up with him.
Fault Lines investigates the system that brings foreign laborers to work on U.S. military bases in Afghanistan.
We will have more from the episode in the coming week as it repeats on Al Jazeera America on March 8, 2014, 5:00p ET, and premieres on Al Jazeera English later in March 11, 2014.
Without further ado, the background reading:
“Tribune Investigation: Pipeline to Peril,” Chicago Tribune, October 2005 - January 2006.
Thousands of workers are needed to meet the demands of the unprecedented privatization of military support operations unfolding under the watch of the U.S. Army and KBR, its prime contractor in Iraq.
KBR, in turn, outsources much of the work. Mansour said his take of this action was from $300 to $500 per worker, paid by other brokers and subcontractors in Amman who send the laborers directly to the bases in Iraq[…]
“Documents Reveal Details of Alleged Labor Trafficking by KBR Subcontractor” David Isenberg and Nick Schwellenbach for Pogo Blog, June 14, 2011
In December 2008, South Asian workers, two thousand miles or more from their homes, staged a protest on the outskirts of Baghdad. The reason: Up to 1,000 of them had been confined in a windowless warehouse and other dismal living quarters without money or work for as long as three months[…]
The men came to Iraq lured by the promise of employment by Najlaa International Catering Services, a subcontractor performing work for Houston-based KBR, Inc. under the Army’s Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP) III contract.
Now, a cache of internal corporate and government documents obtained by POGO offer insight into this episode of alleged war zone human trafficking by companies working for the U.S.—and suggest that hardly anyone has been held accountable for what may be violations of U.S. law.
“The Invisible Army, for foreign workers on U.S. bases in Iraq and Afghanistan, war can be hell,” Sarah Stillman for The New Yorker, June 6, 2011
"The expansion of private-security contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan is well known. But armed security personnel account for only about sixteen per cent of the over-all contracting force. The vast majority—more than sixty per cent of the total in Iraq—aren’t hired guns but hired hands. These workers, primarily from South Asia and Africa, often live in barbed-wire compounds on U.S. bases, eat at meagre chow halls, and host dance parties featuring Nepalese romance ballads and Ugandan church songs. A large number are employed by fly-by-night subcontractors who are financed by the American taxpayer but who often operate outside the law.
The wars’ foreign workers are known, in military parlance, as “third-country nationals,” or T.C.N.s. Many of them recount having been robbed of wages, injured without compensation, subjected to sexual assault, and held in conditions resembling indentured servitude by their subcontractor bosses. Previously unreleased contractor memos, hundreds of interviews, and government documents I obtained during a yearlong investigation confirm many of these claims and reveal other grounds for concern. Widespread mistreatment even led to a series of food riots in Pentagon subcontractor camps, some involving more than a thousand workers.”
“Victims of complacency: The Ongoing Trafficking and Abuse of Third Country Nationals by U.S. Government Contractors,” Yale Law School, ACLU, June 2012
As a result of widely publicized incidents—such as the abduction and murder of twelve Nepali men whom Government contractors trafficked into Iraq in 2004—the U.S. Government came under pressure to eliminate trafficking and labor abuses from the U.S. contracting industry.
Although the Government then adopted a “zero-tolerance” policy against trafficking, reports of abuse continued to surface. In 2007, U.S. Government contractors trafficked a group of Fijian women to Iraq and subjected them to various forms of abuse and exploitation. In 2008, 1,000 South Asian workers staged protests on the outskirts of Baghdad after a Government subcontractor confined them to a windowless warehouse without money or work for as many as three months. Most recently, in December 2011, dozens of Ugandan TCNs held a series of rallies in Baghdad; their employer, a U.S.-based contractor, had left them stranded—with no pay and no return airfare—upon losing its USG contract as a result of the military drawdown.
“Nation in a State: Meals ready, on America’s frontline pressure cooker,”A. Srivathsan for The Hindu, June 6, 2013
The U.S. government categorises people employed from outside the United States or the “local country,” , in this case Afghanistan or Iraq, as Third Country National (TCN). It also states that a TCN is entitled to the same benefits and allowances as the U.S. personal services contractors, which include “danger pay” and “involuntary separate maintenance allowance.” However, the reality appears to be different.
The DynCorp International website still carries announcements calling for applicants for the post of second baker in Afghanistan (last accessed on February 15). While the job description and other information are given, the remuneration details are missing. Men in Odaipatti, probably, will never know what they truly deserve.
“The need to earn is the reason which drives all of us to take big risks,” explains T. Anandaraja
One of my favorite AJAM bits so far is Radio on the Reservation. A taste:
About 7,000 people call the Hopi Reservation home, living in 12 villages spread across three mesas, nestled within the boundaries of the Navajo Nationin the northeast corner of Arizona. It’s isolated and sparse and boasts dramatic landscapes as well as limited access to Internet and even phone services.
As access to instant digital media and news spreads across the United States, tribal radio stations are a rich example of just how the digital divide continues to separate Native America from the United States and how tribes use technology often seen as outdated to bridge that gap.
The Game Changed in Venezuela Last Night – and the International Media Is Asleep At the Switch | Caracas Chronicles
Listen and understand. The game changed in Venezuela last night.What had been a slow-motion unravelling that had stretched out over many years went kinetic all of a sudden.
What we have this morning is no longer the Venezuela story you thought you understood.
Throughout last night, panicked people told their stories of state-sponsored paramilitaries onmotorcycles roaming middle class neighborhoods, shooting at people and storming into apartment buildings, shooting at anyone who seemed like he might be protesting. People continue to be arrested merely for protesting, and a long established local Human Rights NGO makes an urgent plea for an investigation into widespread reports of torture of detainees. There are now dozens of serious human right abuses: National Guardsmen shooting tear gas canisters directly into residential buildings. We have videos of soldiers shooting civilians on the street. And that’s just what came out in real time, over Twitter and YouTube, before any real investigation is carried out. Online media is next, a city of 645,000 inhabitants has been taken off the internet amid mounting repression, and this blog itself has been the object of a Facebook “block” campaign.
What we saw were not “street clashes”, what we saw is a state-hatched offensive to suppress and terrorize its opponents.
After the major crackdown on the streets of major (and minor) Venezuelan cities last night, I expected some kind of response in the major international news outlets this morning. I understand that with an even bigger and more photogenic freakout ongoing in an even more strategically important country, we weren’t going to be front-page-above-the-fold, but I’m staggered this morning to wake up, scan the press and find…
As of 11 a.m. this morning, the New York Times World Section has…nothing.
Front page of Al Jazeera English all day. Some of the AJE coverage. We’re watching.
What has NATO’s so-called humanitarian intervention in Libya achieved in the two-and-a-half years since Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown?
Tune in to Fault Lines on Al Jazeera America at 9:30p ET/6:30p PT for more.
And this episode airs again tomorrow (Sat, Feb 15) at 5:30p ET/2:30p PT.
Fault Lines returns to Libya and investigates what NATO’s so-called humanitarian intervention has achieved in the two-and-a-half years after Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown.
We will have more from the episode in the coming week as it repeats on Al Jazeera America on February 15, 2014, 5:30p ET, and premieres on Al Jazeera English later in February 18, 2014.
Join us as we livetweet this episode Friday from our main Twitter account, @ajfaultlines
Without further ado, the background reading:
“Bomb explodes near foreign ministry in Benghazi,” Al Jazeera America, September 11, 2013
“A powerful blast has caused severe damage to a foreign ministry building in the eastern Libyan city of Benghazi, witnesses said.
It was not immediately known if Wednesday’s blast resulted in casualties.
The explosion came on the first anniversary of an attack by armed men on the U.S. consulate in Benghazi, which killed four Americans, including Ambassador Chris Stevens.
The U.S. government initially said the assault grew out of anti-Western protests. Later, however, it turned out that an armed group launched the attack on the anniversary of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks.
Benghazi, the cradle of the 2011 revolt that toppled and killed dictator Muammar Gaddafi, has been hit by a wave of deadly attacks in recent months targeting security force officers and members of the judiciary, many of whom served in the previous regime.
Attacks have also targeted diplomats and Western interests.
Much of the violence, including the killing of the U.S. ambassador last year, has been attributed to Islamists.
Documents obtained exclusively by Al Jazeera’s Investigative Unit revealed that the U.S. State Department knew of the security problems in Benghazi, but failed to fix them.”
“Libya demands answers after US seizes Al-Qaeda leader in Tripoli” Al Jazeera America, October 6, 2013
“The Libyan government demanded Sunday that Washington explain the “kidnapping” of an alleged Al-Qaeda suspect in Tripoli, a day after U.S. forces conducted two raids on targets in African countries.
U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry indicated that the White House was pleased with the missions’ outcome adding that the Navy SEAL operation in Libya and Somalia made clear that America “will never stop the effort to hold those accountable who conduct acts of terror.”
But anger in Libya, coupled with an apparent failure to capture or kill the intended Al-Shabab target in Somalia, has seemingly dented U.S. claims of a success, and led to questions over Washington’s decision to carry out the raids without the host nation’s knowledge.
Al-Liby’s capture in Tripoli ends a 15-year manhunt for the 49-year-old, who was listed on the FBI’s most wanted list. It also opens the way for criminal proceedings against him to take place in the U.S.”
“Libyan PM freed from captivity,” Al Jazeera America, October 10, 2013
"Libya’s state news agency said Prime Minister Ali Zeidan had been freed after being captured Thursday and briefly detained, reportedly by government-aligned rebel groups. It is not clear if he was released willingly by his captors or if security forces intervened.
The government earlier said the prime minister had been kidnapped from a Tripoli hotel by armed men and taken to an unknown location. But hours later an Interior Ministry spokesman said Zeidan was being held at the ministry’s anti-crime department.
Zeidan returned to his office after he had been seized and held by former rebel militiamen for about six hours.
"The elected government cannot be toppled, unless by the vote of the people," Nuri Ali Abu Sahmain, president of Libya’s General National Congress, the country’s legislative body, said at a news conference Thursday. "We will continue to address such incidents in a legal, lawful manner."
The chaotic situation appears to reflect the weakness of Libya’s government, which is virtually held hostage by rival militias. Some of the groups were angered when the United States snatched an alleged Al-Qaeda member from Tripoli on Saturday, and have accused the government of allowing the raid.”
“Anti-militia protest turns deadly in Libya,” Al Jazeera America, November 15, 2013
"At least 27 people have been killed and 235 wounded after gunmen opened fire Friday on protesters who had called on armed groups to leave Tripoli. The latest violence further challenges Libya’s weak central government.
"The demonstration was peaceful and had been permitted by the Interior Ministry, and then the protesters were fired on when they entered the Gharghur district," where the militia’s headquarters are located, Prime Minister Ali Zeidan said in a TV interview Friday.
"The existence of weapons outside the army and police is dangerous," Zeidan added. "All armed militias need to leave Tripoli, without exception."
The third outbreak of street fighting within 10 days underscored Libya’s struggle to contain regional militias that helped overthrow leader Muammar Gaddafi two years ago but kept their guns. Armed disorder has blocked most oil exports for months.
Friday’s bloodshed, the worst in Tripoli for several months, began when militiamen opened fire, first into the air and then into hundreds of protesters who were demanding their eviction from the capital after the militias had repeatedly battled with other armed factions for control of certain neighborhoods.”
“Displaced Libyans still dream of home,” Karlos Zurutuza for Al Jazeera English, November 26, 2013
“Tripoli, Libya - Nostalgia for the past is painfully evident for 11-year-old Abdul Aziz Omar - one of 400 students at a school holding classes in the rubble of a former naval academy in western Tripoli.
"The labs, the fountain, the swings in the playground … I miss everything from my old school, everything," Omar said.
The ugly cluster of buildings that once hosted dictator Muammar Gaddafi’s future admirals at the Janzur Naval Academy are today the closest thing to a home for 300 displaced families from the city of Tawargha. During the 2011 civil war, Gaddafi’s forces used Tawargha as a base for a brutal two-month siege of neighbouring Misrata. The twin cities are about 200 kilometres east of Tripoli.
Libyan rebels eventually broke the siege and sought revenge on the people of Tawargha, whom they saw as responsible for Misrata’s suffering. Tawargha became a ghost town, its inhabitants scattered across the country.”
(VIDEO) “The Explainer: Libya and its oil-rich history,” Reuters, August 23, 2013
“Revenge Crimes Against Tawerghans in Libya,” Human Rights Watch
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